Ideal for Alkaline, Acidic, Neutral fluids and Solids filtration
The greater quality Electroformed nickel is produced in the high precision with following attributes:
Our customers are successfully using nickel mesh screens for the demanding projects. It offers good ductility, corrosion resistance and heat and electric conductivities that lead to use of nickel mesh in the various applications. Our electroformed nickel screen is used in aerospace, mass spectrometry, sorting and separation. When you are looking for pure nickel mesh, we will assist you in manufacturing the best mesh for your project needs.
Advanced applications of electroforming are extensive and nickel mesh is used in the vast range of diverse electroforming applications. It is because electrodeposited nickel is durable, hard and resistant to general corrosion, erosion and deformation. Its mechanical characteristics vary at the large limits by altering the plating conditions.
Applications of electroformed nickel screen:
Electroforming follows electroplating process for the production of components. The process includes the following steps:
Mandrels and materials
Mandrels can be conductors or insulators of electricity which may be permanent, partially permanent or expendable. The conduction or insulation to current describes the procedures needed to prepare the mandrel for electroforming.
Conductive mandrels are pure metals or alloys and made by common procedures and need application of a thin parting layer to offer separation of an electroform from the mandrel. Insulators are made conductive by spraying the surface with a thin metallic layer often silver. The thin layer of silver offers convenient separation of electroform from the mandrel.
Permanent conductive mandrels
Austenitic stainless steels, copper, brass, traditional steel, invar, kovar and pure nickel
Expendable conductive mandrels
Aluminum and its alloys and zinc based alloys
Waxes, plastic materials, glass, wood and leather
The solutions used for Nickel electroplating are commonly used for electroforming such as concentrated nickel sulfamate with or without agents, called as watts. The benefit of using nickel sulfamate solutions is mild internal stress of deports and large accumulation rates particularly in the concentrated solution.
Watts Solutions: The watts bath comprising of nickel sulfate, nickel chloride and boric acid, offers nickel accumulations that look like matte and have tension. The solution is economical and is widely used for conducting the electroforming process.
Nickel sulfate is used as the major source of nickel ions in the Watts solution. The solution conductivity improves with nickel chloride and has a positive effect on the evenness of the metal distribution at cathode. Boric acid treats as buffer to monitor pH at the cathode-solution connection point. The wetting agents are significant for preventing the pitting corrosion due to air contact and hydrogen bubbles.
With suitable care, the internal stress of the electroformed nickel can be limited through organic agents. The standard stress reducers are paratoulene, sulfonamide, meta-benzene disulfonate etc.
Characteristics of Electroformed Nickel
The mechanical characteristics of electroformed nickel are controlled by several factors such as pH, temperature and cathode current density. The solution elements, their concentration within the specific magnitudes and minor amount of metallic contaminants affect the mechanical characteristics of the electroformed mesh. The characteristics are interrelated and steps followed to improve the hardness of the electroformed product usually improve its strength and decrease ductility. The refined crystal structure is received by improving hardness and tensile strength and lowered ductility.
The mechanical characteristics particularly the elongation% or ductility % are influenced by the thickness of electroformed mesh. An increase in ductility occurs with increase in mesh thickness up to 250 µm thereafter it becomes almost stable.
The ultimate tensile strength changes with nickel thickness however it becomes constant for thickness above 250 µm. The strength of compressively compacted deposits is higher than tensively compacted deposits to almost equal values. High temperature annealing significantly decreases the tensile strength however the reduction is considerably more than in compressively compacted deposits. There is a significant difference observed in ductility with thickness as compare to that in ultimate tensile strength. Annealing at temperature 371oC improves the ductility of both kinds of accumulations however annealing at 760oC improves the ductility of the tensively stressed accumulations, but decreases the ductility of compressively stressed parts.
Control on Electroforming
A desired electroforming needs specific control of the purity of electrolyte and variables –pH, current density, temperature and agitation. It is equivalent to control of decorative nickel electroplating. The general problems occurred in electroforming include monitoring metal dispersion, internal stress, hardness and nodular production. Addition of elements may support in overcoming few of these complications but their contents should be strictly controlled.
The current distribution describes the variation in the accumulated metal thickness at the different locations. The current density and rate of accumulation of metal will be smaller in the recessed zones that on the zones that project from the surface which cause non-uniform metal accumulation in several cases. It can be controlled by decreasing the current density, increasing the separation space among anode and cathode, increasing pH, temperature and metal concentration of the bath.
Internal stress control is imperative in the process of electroforming. It states the forces developed inside the electrodeposit is due to electro-crystallization and the codeposition of contaminants like hydrogen, sulfur and other agents. The forces may be of tensile or compressive type. Intense stress can result into damaging the electroform when it is removed from the mandrel, complications in removing the electroformed mesh from mandrel, early shedding or removal of electroform from mandrel and buckling and blistering of deposit that often is the sign of large compressive stress.
A condition that causes roughness in decorative plating will cause more adverse effect on electroforming operation. Nuggets and trees will produce. These are the high current density regions and the larger the current they receive, quickly they develop and more they steal the surrounding areas of deposit. As a result, the filtration rates utilized in electroforming are very high in an effort to avoid roughness, the rates may magnitude to passing the complete solution through a filter one or more times per hour.
Electroformed stampers for developing compact discs are created in clean rooms under specific cleanliness conditions. Anode particles may also develop irregularity and are controlled through anode bags and diaphragms, larger filtration rates and cathode agitation.
The procedures conducted after electroforming are machining, final finishing of electroform, removal of electroform from mandrel and backing the mesh.
Uses of Electroformed mesh
Electroformed nickel mesh products have extensive applications such as textile printings screens or rotary screens that are utilized to develop multi-color patterns on textiles, wallpaper and carpets. Many printing screens are seamless electroformed cylinders of nickel comprising mesh that has fine and precise holes. The designs are produced on the mesh screen through photoresist methods that close some openings whilst keep others free. The mesh is mounted on the rotary textile printing machines on color feed tubings that lie inside and are concentric with the larger mesh screens. Color is driven through the open mesh areas through magnetic roll kept against the screen. Every screen feeds single color, machines consist of around 12 different mesh screens to produce intricate and comprehensive designs.
The advanced production includes continuous electroforming of porous materials for producing battery electrodes. It includes the accumulation of nickel onto a woven plastic fiber mesh that is produced by established plating on plastics, the mandrel is separated after plating by heating. However the details have not been stated, a porous mesh that can be impregnated with active nickel hydroxide is used in the production of nickel-cadmium batteries.
The electroformed nickel mesh is also used as filters, sieves and electric razor screens.
Electroformed Nickel Mesh Square Holes Specification
|Nominal Size||Opening Size (W)||Pitch (P) (ISO)||Sheet Thickness|
|principal sizes (opening)||supplementary sizes||Standard Size||Tolerance||Preferred Value||Tolerance|
|R40/3 series||R20 series||(±)||Maximum||Maximum||Minimum|
|500 mm||500||500||500 mm||6.5||18||620||710||530||50 mm|
|500 mm||450||560||645||475||50 mm|
|500 mm||425||425 mm||5.5||15||530||610||450||45 mm|
|500 mm||400||490||555||425||45 mm|
|355 mm||355||355||355 mm||4.6||13||450||510||380||30 mm|
|355 mm||315||395||480||335||30 mm|
|355 mm||300||300 mm||3.9||11||380||440||320||30 mm|
|355 mm||280||355||420||300||30 mm|
|250 mm||250||250||250 mm||3.3||9||320||385||270||30 mm|
|250 mm||224||275||340||250||30 mm|
|250 mm||212||212||2.8||8||270||320||240||25 mm|
|250 mm||200||260||305||225||25 mm|
|180 mm||180||180||180 mm||2.3||6||240||270||200||25 mm|
|180 mm||160||210||255||180||20 to 25 mm|
|180 mm||150||150 mm||2.0||5||200||230||170||20 to 25 mm|
|180 mm||140||190||230||160||20 to 25 mm|
|125 mm||125||125||125 mm||2.0||5||170||205||140||20 to 25 mm|
|125 mm||112||155||205||135||15 to 25 mm|
|125 mm||106||106 mm||2.0||5||150||205||130||15 to 25 mm|
|125 mm||100||140||170||120||15 to 25 mm|
|90 mm||90||90||90 mm||2.0||5||130||170||110||15 to 25 mm|
|90 mm||80||115||170||100||15 to 25 mm|
|90 mm||75||75 mm||2.0||5||110||140||95||12 to 25 mm|
|90 mm||71||105||140||90||12 to 25 mm|
|63 mm||63||63||63 mm||2.0||5||95||140||90||12 to 25 mm|
|63 mm||56||90||140||75||12 to 25 mm|
|63 mm||53||53 mm||2.0||5||85||100||70||12 to 25 mm|
|63 mm||50||80||100||70||12 to 25 mm|
|45 mm||45||45||45 mm||2.0||4||75||100||65||12 to 25 mm|
|45 mm||40||70||90||60||12 to 25 mm|
|45 mm||38||38 mm||2.0||4||65||85||55||12 to 25 mm|
|45 mm||36||65||85||55||12 to 25 mm|
|32 mm||32 mm||2.0||4||60||85||50||10 to 25 mm|
|25 mm||25 mm||2.0||4||50||65||45||10 to 25 mm|
|20 mm||20 mm||2.0||4||45||65||40||10 to 25 mm|
|16 mm||16 mm||2.0||4||40||65||35||10 to 25 mm|
|10 mm||10||2.0||4||30||50||25||10 to 25 mm|
|5 mm||5||2.0||4||25||40||20||8 to 25 mm|
|Relation between Mesh and Opening|
|Mesh (LPI)||Hole (square only) (μm)||Open Area Void Fraction (approx. %)||Mesh (LPI)||Hole (square only) (μm)||Open Area Void Fraction (%)||Mesh (LPI)||Hole (square only) (μm)||Open Area Void Fraction (approx. %)|
|1000||5 μm||3.9 %||200||63 μm||24.6 %||80||212 μm||44.6 %|
|750||5 μm||2.2 %||200||65 μm||26.2 %||200||213 μm||45 %|
|750||10 μm||8.7 %||200||75 μm||34.9 %||200||227 μm||51 %|
|670||10 μm||7 %||200||85 μm||44.8 %||200||250 μm||62 %|
|670||15 μm||15.6 %||150||85 μm||25.3 %||60||255 μm||36.3 %|
|670||16 μm||17.8 %||150||90 μm||28.3 %||60||271 μm||41 %|
|500||10 μm||3.9 %||150||97 μm||33 %||60||300 μm||50.3 %|
|500||15 μm||8.7 %||150||106 μm||39 %||60||302 μm||51 %|
|500||16 μm||9.9 %||150||125 μm||54.7 %||60||355 μm||70.4 %|
|500||20 μm||15.5 %||125||107 μm||27.8 %||50||322 μm||40.2 %|
|500||25 μm||24.2 %||125||125 μm||38 %||50||355 μm||48.8 %|
|400||30 μm||22.3 %||125||150 μm||54.6 %||50||384 μm||57.1 %|
|400||32 μm||25.4 %||120||116 μm||30 %||45||425 μm||56.8 %|
|400||38 μm||35.8 %||120||125 μm||34.8 %||45||455 μm||65 %|
|333||38 μm||24.8 %||120||127 μm||35.9 %||30||500 μm||34.8 %|
|333||41 μm||28.9 %||110||139 μm||36 %||30||600 μm||50 %|
|333||45 μm||34.8 %||110||150 μm||42 %||25||600 μm||35 %|
|250||45 μm||19.6 %||110||151 μm||42.7 %||25||710 μm||48.8 %|
|250||49 μm||23.2 %||100||165 μm||42.2 %||20||850 μm||44.8 %|
|250||53 μm||27.2 %||100||180 μm||50 %||14.5||1000 μm||32.6 %|
|250||57 μm||31.5 %||90||180 μm||40.7 %|
|250||63 μm||38.4 %||90||181 μm||41.2 %|
|250||65 μm||41 %||90||197 μm||48.8 %|
Meshes and openings are also available.